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臭氧污染治理:臭氧污染如何防治

[2020-8-4] 点击:

湿电咨询服务: 陶经理18332815001 张经理18633235200

JINNIANLAI,CHOUYANGZAIWOGUODUODIYIJINGCHENGWEIYINGXIANGXIAJIHUANJINGKONGQIZHILIANGDEZHONGYAOYINSU。CHOUYANGWURANZHILIGONGZUODEFUZAXINGHEJIANJUXINGJUEDINGLECHOUYANGWURANZHILIJIXUQIANGHUAKEXUEZHICHENG。

RUHEKEXUEZHILICHOUYANGWURAN?MUQIAN,GEDIZAIKEXUEZHILICHOUYANGWURANFANGMIANHAIYOUNAXIEGONGZUOYAOZUO?JIZHEJIUZHEIXIEWENTICAIFANGLEGUOJIADAQIWURANFANGZHIGONGGUANLIANHEZHONGXINFUZHURENCHAIFAHE。

中国环境报:臭氧污染治理难在何处?治理臭氧污染为何更需秉持科学治污理念?

柴发合:近年来,我国大气臭氧污染呈加剧态势,已成为继PM2.5后困扰城市空气质量改善和达标管理的一项重要污染物,且治理难度比PM2.5更大。发达国家控制臭氧污染的经验表明,臭氧污染是空气质量管理工作中最具挑战性的难题之一,主要源于三个方面的因素:

DIYI,CHOUYANGDEDAQISHOUMINGJIAOZHANG,KEYIYUANJULICHUANSHU,XINGCHENGQUYUXINGWURAN;KONGZHICHOUYANGWURANBIXULIQINGBUTONGQUYUJIANDEXIANGHUGONGXIAN,SHIXINGQUYULIANFANGLIANZHI。

DIER,CHOUYANGDEHUAXUESHENGCHENGJIZHIFUZA,YUQIANTIWUDEGUANXICHENGFEIXIANXING,XUEJIANCHOUYANGQIANTIWUPAIFANGXUFUHEYIDINGDEKEXUEBILIBINGQIEYINDIZHIYI,BUHELIDEJIANPAIFANERKENENGDAOZHIJUDICHOUYANGWURANDEJIAZHONG。

DISAN,CHOUYANGDEVOCsQIANTIWULAIYUANFUZA、ZHONGLEIFANDUO、HUOXINGCHAYIDA,YINCIJINGZHUNKONGZHINANDUDA。

WEIQIESHIYOUXIAODIJINXINGHUANJINGKONGQICHOUYANGWURANFANGZHI,XUYAOZAIKEXUEFANGFADEZHIDAOXIAKAIZHANHUANJINGKONGQICHOUYANGWURANLAIYUANJIEXIGONGZUO,ZHUNQUEDINGLIANGFENXICHENGSHI—QUYU—QUANGUODENGBUTONGKONGJIANCHIDUSHANGDECHOUYANGLAIYUAN。YAONONGQINGCHUFUZADEQIXIANGGUOCHENGYIJIWURANWUDESHUIPINGSHUSONGHECHUIZHISHUSONGGUOCHENG,ZHIDINGHELIYOUXIAODEDANYANGHUAWU(NOx)HEHUIFAXINGYOUJIWU(VOCs)JIANPAICELVE,MINGQUEKONGZHIZHONGDIAN,BUDUANTIGAOCHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIDEKEXUEXINGHEJINGZHUNXING。

中国环境报:目前开展的科研工作给臭氧污染治理提供了哪些支撑?

柴发合:不同于煤烟型污染治理,治理臭氧这种二次污染物,首先要了解臭氧的成因和形成的机理,这是随着科研工作的不断深入而逐渐明晰的。

YIMEIGUOWEILI,ZISHANGGESHIJI40NIANDAIMEIGUOLUOSHANJIGUANGHUAXUEYANWUSHIJIANKAISHI,MEIGUODUICHOUYANGWURANZHILIDETANSUOJINGLILEYOUJIDONGCHEGUANKONGWEIZHUDAOQUANXINGYEDENOxGUANKONG,CONGXIBUDIQUDAODONGBUDIQUZAIDAOQUANGUOFANWEIDEQUYULIANFANGLIANKONG,CONGDANCHUNNOxGUANKONGDAONOxHEVOCsXIETONGKONGZHIDEGUOCHENG。ZHENGGEGUOCHENGDOULIBUKAIKEXUEYANJIUDEZHIDAOZUOYONG。

YIKAISHI,WOMENZHIDAORENLEIHUODONGCHANSHENGDEWURANWUSHICHOUYANGWURANDEZHUYAOCHENGYIN。TONGGUOYANJIU,FAXIANLENOxHEVOCsSHIZUIZHUYAODEYINGXIANGYINSU。ZHEILIANGZHONGQIANTIWUYUCHOUYANGDESHENGCHENGSHIFEIXIANXINGGUANXI,ZAIBUTONGDEDIQUHEBUTONGSHIJIAN,LIANGZHEDUICHOUYANGSHENGCHENGDEYINGXIANGCHENGDUBUTONG,YEJIUSHIWOMENCHANGSHUODECHOUYANGSHENGCHENGMINGANXINGBUTONG。TONGSHI,NOxZHONGDEYIYANGHUADANDUICHOUYANGHAIYOUDIDINGZUOYONG,CHENGSHIZHONGJIDONGCHEPAIFANGDEYIYANGHUADANHUI“CHIDIAO”CHOUYANG,DAOZHICHENGSHIZHONGXINDECHOUYANGNONGDUHUIJINGCHANGDIYUJIAOQU。ERQIE,CHOUYANGGUANGHUAXUEFANYINGDECHANWU,DUITAIYANGGUANGZHAO、WENDU、SHIDU、FENGSUDENGQIXIANGYINSUFEICHANGMINGAN。

WOGUOCHOUYANGWURANYANJIUSHIYUSHANGGESHIJI70NIANDAIDELANZHOUSHI,TONGGUOKEXUEYANJIUFAXIAN,,DANGDISHIYOUHUAGONGCHANGPAIFANGDEYOUJIFEIQIDAOZHILEGUANGHUAXUEYANWUDECHANSHENG,YINCIZHIDINGLEXIANGGUANFANGKONGDUICE,KAIZHANGUANGHUAXUEWURANDEFANGKONG。

TONGGUOKAIZHANYIXILIEDUIGUANGHUAXUEYANWUDEKEXUEYANJIU,WOMENYIJINGZHANGWOWOGUOCHOUYANGWURANGAOFADESHIJIANHEQUYU,FASHENGCHOUYANGWURANSHIDEQIXIANGTIAOJIAN、CHOUYANGYANBIANDEGUILVHECHUANSHUTEZHENG,YIJICHOUYANGQIANTIWUDEQUYUHEXINGYEDELAIYUANDENG,WEICHOUYANGWURANZHILITIGONGLEZHUNQUEDEFANGXIANGHEJINGZHUNDEZHUASHOU。

中国环境报:氮氧化物和挥发性有机物是影响臭氧污染的主要因素。挥发性有机物往往是无组织排放,监管难度更大。如何运用科学治污理念,强化对挥发性有机物的治理?

柴发合:在VOCs治理方面,可以通过排放测算、观测分析、数值模拟计算等多种科学研究方法,识别众多VOCs物种中对臭氧形成贡献较大的活性VOCs物种,厘清活性VOCs物种的主要来源,定性定量地判断出对臭氧污染贡献较大的行业。结合行业特性和企业运行特征,在关键排污工段中制定适合行业和企业的治污措施,并为当地政府制定臭氧污染防治对策提供科学的技术支撑。

DANGQIAN,YOUSHENGTAIHUANJINGBUFABUDE《ZHONGDIANXINGYEHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUZONGHEZHILIFANGAN》JIUHENHAODITIXIANLEKEXUEZHIWUDELINIAN。FANGANCONGTUIJINYUANTOUTIDAI、JIAQIANGWUZUZHIPAIFANGKONGZHI、TUIDONGJIANSHEGAOXIAOZHIWUSHESHI、QIANGHUAJINGXIHUAGUANKONGDENGFANGMIANRUSHOU,ZHENDUISHIHUAXINGYE、MEIHUAGONGXINGYE、HUAGONGXINGYE、GONGYETUZHUANGXINGYE、YINSHUAXINGYEDENGDUOGEZHONGDIANXINGYE,YIJIYOUPINCHUYUNXIAO、GONGYEYUANQUHECHANYEJIQUNDENGDUOGEZHONGDIANHUANJIE,TICHUJUTIZHIWUCUOSHIYAOQIU,WEIJIANGDIVOCsPAIFANG、TUIDONGCHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIGONGZUOTIGONGLEKEXUEZHIDAO。

中国环境报:臭氧污染为何要与PM2.5污染采用协同共治的策略?

柴发合:近地面臭氧是前体物VOCs和NOx发生光化学反应的产物,PM2.5是人为活动或天然过程排放的反应性气体在大气中反应生成的粒径小于2.5微米的颗粒。臭氧污染和PM2.5污染存在几方面的关联性:

SHOUXIAN,CHOUYANGHEPM2.5ZHONGDEERCICHENGFENDOUSHITONGGUODAQIHUAXUEFANYINGCHANSHENG,QIANTIWULEISI,DOUBAOHANNOxHEVOCs,CHOUYANGYUERCIKELIWUSHENGCHENGCHENGXIANYIDINGDEZHENGXIANGGUANGUANXI。QICI,DUOZHONGYINSUYINGXIANGCHOUYANGYUPM2.5DEGUANLIANXING,CHOUYANGSHIYOUGUANGHUAXUEFANYINGSHENGCHENG,GUANGDETONGLIANGZHIJIEJUEDINGLECHOUYANGSHENGCHENGDENENGLI。PM2.5DECUNZAIZENGJIALEQIRONGJIAOGUANGXUEHOUDU,XUERUOLEDADAOJINDIMIANDEGUANGLIANG,JIANSHAOLEGUANGJIEFANYINGSULV,XUERUOLECHOUYANGSHENGCHENG。ZAICI,GAOCHOUYANGNONGDUDAOZHIDAQIYANGHUAXINGZENGQIANG,YOULIYUERCIKELIWUDESHENGCHENG,CONGERJIAJUPM2.5WURAN。

CAIYONGXIETONGKONGZHIDECELVESHIKEXUEZHIWULINIANDEJUTITIXIAN。CHOUYANGDEQIANTIWUNOxHEVOCsYESHIPM2.5DEQIANTIWU。YINCI,XIETONGKONGZHIDUICHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIYIYIZHONGDA。JINJINIANPM2.5ZHILIQUDELEYIDINGDEJINZHAN。ZAIZHILICHOUYANGWURANSHI,YINGZAIZHILIPM2.5DEJICHUSHANGJIXUZONGJIEJINGYAN,CAIQUXIETONGKONGZHIDECELVE。

中国环境报:下一步,臭氧污染治理的重点在哪里?

柴发合:臭氧污染防治在欧美国家历经几十年历程,在我国也将是一个长期的治理过程。

JINNIANLAI,WOGUOPM2.5WURANZHILIQUDEXIANZHUCHENGXIAO,PM2.5CHENGXIANCHUGENGTUCHUDEERCIWURANTEZHENG,ERGAONONGDUNOxHEVOCsDAOZHIDEDAQIQIANGYANGHUAXINGSHIZHONGWURANQIJIANPM2.5ERCIZUFENBAOFASHIZENGZHANGDEGUANJIANQUDONGLI,YUXIAJICHOUYANGWURANCHENGYINLEISI。

XIAYIBU,JIANGSHENRUYANJIUZHONGDIANQUYUCHOUYANGWURANTEZHENGHECHUANSHUGUILV,KEXUEHUADINGCHOUYANGLIANFANGLIANKONGQUYU,DINGLIANGJIEXIQIANTIWUJIANPAIYUCHOUYANGSHENGCHENGDEFEIXIANXINGGUANXI,CHIXUKAIZHANCHOUYANGWURANFANGKONGCUOSHIXIAOGUOPINGGU,ZHUBUKAIZHANCHOUYANGDUIRENTIJIANKANGHESHENGTAIHUANJINGYINGXIANGYANJIU。YIVOCsHENOxXIETONGJIANPAIWEIZHUASHOU,JIANLIBIAOZHUN、JIANCE、ZHIFABIHUANDEVOCsZHILITIXI,JIANCHIYUANTOUTIDAI、GUOCHENGKONGZHI、MODUANJIANPAIDEQUANGUOCHENGGUANKONGJISHULUXIAN。XIHUAVOCsPAIFANGQINGDAN,MOQINGDISHU、DONGTAIGENGXIN、ZONGLIANGKONGZHI,QIANGHUASHEVOCsZHONGDIANYUANPAIFANGJIANCEYUJIANGUAN,YOUHUAXIANYOUJIANCEWANGLUO,JIANLIGUOJIAGUANGHUAXUEJIANCEWANG,TIGAOYANPANNENGLI,QUANMIANTUIJINPM2.5HECHOUYANGDEXIETONGFANGZHI。

中国环境报:目前,一些地方臭氧污染治理成效不足的原因在于未充分认识科学治污的理念,治理举措缺乏科学性。您对地方进一步加强臭氧污染治理有哪些建议?

柴发合:相较于PM2.5,臭氧主要为二次污染物,它的防治主要在于前体物VOCs和NOx的管控。由于臭氧生成机理复杂,和前体物之间存在复杂的非线性响应关系,特别需要在科学研究的指导下,制定合理的减排规划,对VOCs和NOx进行协同控制。

CHULAIZIBENDIDAQIGUANGHUAXUEFANYINGGUOCHENGWAI,QUYUCHUANSHUDUICHOUYANGWURANYEYOUJIAODAGONGXIAN。YINCI,TONGGUOJIANDANDIKONGZHIBENDIYICIWURANWUDEPAIFANGWUFAYOUXIAOSHIXIANCHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIDEMUBIAO,XUYAOGOUJIANYOULIDEQUYU/DUODIQULIANFANGLIANKONGJIZHI,BIMIANYINBUHELIDEJIANPAIKENENGDAOZHIDEJUDICHOUYANGWURANJIAZHONGXIANXIANG。

MUQIAN,GEDIYINGDANGYIVOCsKONGZHIWEIZHU,CONGWENTIDUO、YISHANGSHOU、JIANXIAOKUAI、DANWEIPAIFANGLIANGCHOUYANGSHENGCHENGQIANSHIDADENGDUOJIAODUKAOLV,QUANMIANJIAQIANGSHIHUA、HUAGONG、GONGYETUZHUANG、BAOZHUANGYINSHUA、JIAYOUZHANCHUYOUKUDENGZHONGDIANXINGYEDEJIANGUANLIDU。

CHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIJIANGSHIYIXIANGZHANGQIHEJIANJUDERENWU,BUKENENGYICUERJIU。YAOBAOCHICHOUYANGWURANFANGZHICHIXUZUOZHANDEZHANLVEDINGLI,CHIXUSHENHUASIDAJIEGOUDIAOZHENG,ZAIYIDONGYUAN、GONGYEYUANHESHEHUISHENGHUOYUANKONGZHICELVESHANGLIZHENGQUDEXINDETUPO。

中国环境报:环境污染尤其是臭氧污染防治不单单是生态环境部门的工作,也是整个社会的工作,需要全社会的参与。您觉得社会各个层面应该怎么做?

柴发合:的确,臭氧污染会影响到我们每一个人的健康,同时我们又可能是臭氧污染的贡献者。因此,不论是普通老百姓还是工业企业的经营者都应该努力做到减少臭氧污染,保护大气环境。

DUIYUPUTONGLAOBAIXINGLAISHUO,WOMENDEYIXIERICHANGHUODONG,RUYONGDIAN、KAICHE、ZHUANGXIUHEHUWAISHAOKAODENGDOUHUIZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEPAIFANGDALIANGCHOUYANGQIANTIWUNOxHEVOCs,CONGERDAOZHICHOUYANGWURAN。YINCI,WOMENYAOYANGCHENGJIEYUEYONGDIAN、JINLIANGCHENGZUOGONGGONGJIAOTONGCHUXING、YONGSHUIXINGQIDENGHUANBAOCHANPINJINXINGZHUANGXIU、JIANSHAOHUWAISHAOKAODENGHAOXIGUAN。

DUIYUQIYEJINGYINGZHELAISHUO,SHOUXIANYINGZAISIXIANGSHANGRENSHIDAOQIYEZAISHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUSHANGDEZEREN;TONGSHI,YAOFAHUIQIYEDEZHUGUANNENGDONGXING,YANGEZHIXINGXIANGGUANPAIFANGBIAOZHUN,JIJIZHUDONGDICAIQUSHIYONGJISHUJIANSHAOCHOUYANGQIANTIWUNOxHEVOCsDEPAIFANG,YAOZAIWURANYUANTOU、SHENGCHANGUOCHENGHEFEIQIZHILIMEIGEHUANJIEZUODAOYINGKONGJINKONG。

DUIYUGEJIZHENGFULAISHUO,YINGJIYUKEXUERENZHI,ZHIDINGFUHEDIFANGTEDIANDECHOUYANGWURANFANGKONGFANGAN。CAIQUZUIYOUXIAODEVOCsHENOxZHANGQIJIANPAICELVEHEDUANQIYINGDUICUOSHI,JINGZHUNSHICE,QIANGHUAJIANGUAN,JIJIEDIAOKONG,BAXIANGZHILI,YIZHICHOUYANGWURANEHUAQUSHI,JIANGDICHOUYANGWURANSHUIPING,JIANSHAOCHOUYANGWURANTIANSHU。

ZAICHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIDEGUOCHENGZHONGYINGKAIZHANDONGTAIGENZONGYANJIU,KAIFAGAOXIAOSHIYONGKONGZHIJISHU,KEXUEPINGJIACHOUYANGFANGZHIXINGDONGDECHENGXIAO,BUDUANYOUHUACHOUYANGFANGKONGDUICE,WEICHOUYANGWURANFANGZHIHEPM2.5YUCHOUYANGXIEDIAOKONGZHITIGONGJIANSHIDEKEJIZHICHENG。

LAIYUAN:ZHONGGUOHUANJINGBAO,JIZHE:LIYING

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