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贺克斌院士:打赢蓝天保卫战需要加快钢铁行业超低排放改造

[2019-5-6] 点击:

湿电咨询服务: 陶经理18332815001 张经理18633235200

2018NIAN,GUOWUYUANFABUSHISHI《DAYINGLANTIANBAOWEIZHANSANNIANXINGDONGJIHUA》,TICHUJINGGUO3NIANNULI,DAFUJIANSHAOZHUYAODAQIWURANWUPAIFANGZONGLIANG,XIETONGJIANSHAOWENSHIQITIPAIFANG,JINYIBUMINGXIANJIANGDIPM2.5NONGDU,MINGXIANJIANSHAOZHONGWURANTIANSHU,MINGXIANGAISHANHUANJINGKONGQIZHILIANG,MINGXIANZENGQIANGRENMINDELANTIANXINGFUGAN。DAYINGLANTIANBAOWEIZHANSHIDANGDESHIJIUDAZUOCHUDEZHONGDAJUECEBUSHU,SHIWURANFANGZHIGONGJIANZHANDESHOUYAORENWU,DUIMANZURENMINRIYIZENGZHANGDEMEIHAOSHENGHUOXUYAO、QUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUI、JINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHANHEMEILIZHONGGUOJIANSHEDOUYOUZHEZHONGYAOYIYI。

GANGTIEXINGYESHIWOGUODAQIWURANDEZHONGYAOLAIYUAN。WEILESHENHUAGONGYEWURANZHILI、JIANJUEDAYINGLANTIANBAOWEIZHAN,SHENGTAIHUANJINGBUHUITONGYOUGUANBUWEIYANJIUFABULE《GUANYUTUIJINSHISHIGANGTIEXINGYECHAODIPAIFANGDEYIJIAN》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《YIJIAN》)。SHENRUTUIJINGANGTIEXINGYECHAODIPAIFANG,JIANGZAIDAIDONGGANGTIEXINGYESHENGJIZHUANXINGDETONGSHI,TUIDONGQUANGUOYOUQISHIZHONGDIANQUYUDAQIHUANJINGZHILIANGCHIXUGAISHAN,CUJINJINGJIXIANGGAOZHILIANGFAZHANZHUANBIAN。

一、钢铁行业是目前我国主要的大气污染排放源之一

WOGUOSHISHIJIESHANGZUIDADEGANGTIESHENGCHANGUO,2018NIANCUGANGCHANLIANG9.28YIDUN,ZHANSHIJIECUGANGZONGCHANLIANGDE51.3%。GANGTIEXINGYEGONGYILIUCHENGZHANG、CHANWUHUANJIEDUO,WURANWUPAIFANGLIANGDA。JINNIANLAI,TONGGUOCAIQUJIEGOUYOUHUA、ZHONGDIANDIQUQIYEYIDIBANQIAN、QIANGHUAMODUANWURANZHILIDENGCUOSHI,WOGUOJIJITUIJINGANGTIEXINGYEDAQIWURANWUJIANPAIGONGZUO,QUDELEZHONGYAOJINZHAN。2013NIANYILAI,GONGTAOTAILUOHOUHEGUOSHENGGANGTIECHANNENG2.1YIDUN,QUDIDITIAOGANG1.4YIDUN,ZHEIXIECUOSHISHIDEZAIQUANGUOGANGTIECHANLIANGSHANGSHENGDETONGSHISHIXIANLEWURANWUPAIFANGZONGLIANGXIAJIANG,DANYOUYUGANGTIEXINGYEZONGCHANLIANGJUDA,PAIFANGSHUIPINGCANCHABUQI,XINGYEZONGPAIFANGLIANGYIRANGAOQIBUXIA。JUCESUAN,2017NIANGANGTIEXINGYEERYANGHUALIU、DANYANGHUAWUHEKELIWUPAIFANGLIANGFENBIEWEI106WANDUN、172WANDUN、281WANDUN,ZHANQUANGUOPAIFANGZONGLIANGDE7%、10%、20%ZUOYOU。SUIZHEHUANJINGZHILILIDUBUDUANJIAQIANG,TEBIESHIRANMEIDIANCHANGSHISHICHAODIPAIFANGYILAI,HUODIANXINGYEWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGDAFUDUXIAJIANG,2017NIANGANGTIEXINGYEZHUYAOWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGYICHAOGUODIANLIXINGYE,CHENGWEIGONGYEBUMENZUIDADEWURANWUPAIFANGLAIYUAN。

TONGSHI,GANGTIEXINGYESHIHUOWUYUNSHULIANGZUIDADEXINGYEZHIYI,WOGUOGANGTIEXINGYEHUOYUNLIANGWEI40YIDUNYISHANG,ZHANQUANGUOHUOYUNZONGLIANG1/10ZUOYOU。YUGUOWAIGANGTIEXINGYEYITIELUHESHUILUYUNSHUWEIZHUBUTONG,WOGUOGANGTIEXINGYEZHUYAOYIKAOGONGLUYUNSHU,YUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGDEDANYANGHUAWU、KELIWUPAIFANGFEICHANGTUCHU,ZHANGANGTIEQIYEZISHENPAIFANGDE20%YISHANG。

二、钢铁行业布局集中加重污染

CHUPAIFANGLIANGDAYIWAI,WOGUOGANGTIECHANYEBUJUJIZHONGYESHIYINGXIANGQUYUDAQIWURANDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。WOGUOGANGTIECHANNENGBUJUZHUYAOJIZHONGYUDAQIWURANXIANGDUIYANZHONGDEDIQU,JINGJINJIJIZHOUBIANDIQU、ZHANGSANJIAODIQU、FENWEIPINGYUANDENGDAQIWURANFANGZHIZHONGDIANQUYUDEGANGTIECHANNENGZHANQUANGUOZONGCHANNENGDE55%,QIPINGJUNPM2.5NONGDUYEBIQUANGUOPINGJUNNONGDUGAO38%ZUOYOU。DALIANGGANGTIEXINGYEDEJIZHONGPAIFANGJIAZHONGQUYUDAQIWURAN。

GANGTIEQIYEPAIFANGDUICHENGSHIKONGQIZHILIANGYOUXIANZHUYINGXIANG。WOGUOGANGTIECHANNENGQIAN20WEIDECHENGSHI(CHANNENGZHANQUANGUOZONGCHANNENGDE51%)WUYIKONGQIZHILIANGDABIAO,PINGJUNPM2.5NONGDUBIQUANGUOPINGJUNNONGDUGAO28%。2018NIAN168CHENGSHIKONGQIZHILIANGPAIMINGDAOSHUQIAN7WEIDECHENGSHI,GANGTIEQIYEDOUDUIBENDIHUANJINGKONGQIZHILIANGCHANSHENGZHONGYAOYINGXIANG,QIZHONGPAIMINGDAOSHUDIERWEIZHIDIQIWEIDESHIJIAZHUANGSHI、XINGTAISHI、TANGSHANSHI、HANDANSHI、ANYANGSHIHETAIYUANSHI,JUNWEIQUANGUOGANGTIECHANNENGQIAN20CHENGSHI,CUGANGCHANNENGFENBIEWEI1200WANDUN、700WANDUN、1.33YIDUN、4300WANDUN、2100WANDUNHE1600WANDUN。KONGQIZHILIANGPAIMINGDAOSHUDIYIWEIDELINFENSHI,SUIGANGTIECHANNENGBUZAIQIAN20CHENGSHIPAIMINGZHIZHONG,DANYONGYOUGANGTIEQIYE11JIA,YOUCIKEJIAN,GUIMOXIAO、PAIFANGGAODEQIYEJIZHONGDUICHENGSHIKONGQIZHILIANGYINGXIANGGENGWEIMINGXIAN。

三、钢铁行业仍有较大减排空间

“SHIYIWU”YILAI,QUANGUOGANGTIEQIYELUXUSHISHILEYIXILIEZHIWUGAIZAOGONGCHENG,TONGGUOSHAOJIEJI(QIUTUAN)PEIBEITUOLIUSHESHI,SHAOJIEJIJIWEI、POSUISHAIFEN、GAOLUKUANGCAOHECHUTIECHANG、ZHUANLUYICIYANQI、ZHUANLUERCIYANQIDENGGONGXUCHUCHENSHEBEISHENGJIGAIZAODENGGONGZUO,SHIDUNGANGERYANGHUALIUHEYOUZUZHIKELIWUPAIFANGLIANGFENBIEXIAJIANGLE70%HE60%YISHANG,DAQIWURANZHILIQUDELEJIJIJINZHAN,DANDANYANGHUAWUWEICAIQUCUOSHI、ZHILISHUIPINGDI、WUZUZHIPAIFANGYANZHONG、ZHONGDIANQUYUPAIFANGZONGLIANGDADENGWENTIWEIDEDAOGENBENJIEJUE。YURIBEN、DEGUO、HANGUODENGFADAGUOJIAXIANGBI,MUQIANWOGUOGANGTIEXINGYEWURANKONGZHISHUIPINGHEHUANBAOGUANLISHUIPINGRENGYOUJIAODACHAJU,YOUQISHIZHANKELIWUPAIFANG50%YISHANGDEWUZUZHIPAIFANG,DUNGANGKELIWUWUZUZHIPAIFANGLIANGWOGUOBIFADAGUOJIAGAOCHUYIBEIYISHANG。ZUOWEICHAOGUOQUANQIUCHANLIANG1/2DEGUOJIA,WOGUOJIXUDUIBIAOGUOJIXIANJINSHUIPING,SHIXIANGANGTIEXINGYEPAIFANGDEDAFUXUEJIAN。

WEILEYOUXIAOJIANPAIGELEIWURANWU,TUIJINDAQIHUANJINGZHILIANGGAISHAN,JINNIANLAIWOGUODALITUIDONGDAQIWURANFANGZHIXINJISHUDEKAIFAHESHIJIANYINGYONG,QUDEXIANZHUJINZHAN。RUTONGGUOJIN5NIANDENULI,WOGUOCHAOGUOBACHENGDERANMEIDIANCHANGSHIXIANLECHAODIPAIFANG,RANMEIDIANCHANGCHANGGUIDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGSHUIPINGYIJIANGZHISHIJIEZUIDI,WOGUOYIJIANCHENGQUANQIUZUIDADEQINGJIEMEIDIANTIXI。FEIDIANXINGYEYEZAIGAOXIAOTUOLIU、TUOXIAO、CHUCHENFANGMIANQUDEJINZHAN,BINGZHUJIANCONGMODUANZHILIWEIZHUZHUANXIANGQUANGUOCHENGKONGZHI,RUTAOCIDENGJIANCAIXINGYEDEQINGJIERANLIAOGAIZAOHEBOLIXIANWEIXINGYEDEQUANYANGRANSHAOJISHUDOUTUIJINLEXIANGYINGXINGYEDEJIANPAIGONGZUO。ZHEIXIEJISHUDEFAZHANHEYINGYONGYIFANGMIANWEIGANGTIEXINGYEFAZHANGAOXIAOWURANJIANPAIJISHUTIGONGLEJIEJIAN,LINGYIFANGMIANYEZAITUIJINQITAXINGYEWURANJIANPAIDETONGSHI,SHIDEGANGTIEXINGYEWURANWENTIGENGJIATUCHU。ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,GANGTIEXINGYEGENGXUJIAKUAITUIJINWURANZHILIBUFA,WEIZISHENJINYIBUFAZHANYINGDEKONGJIAN。

四、《意见》实施将显著改善空气质量

《YIJIAN》GENJUXINGYEPAIFANGTEZHENG,DUIYOUZUZHIPAIFANG、WUZUZHIPAIFANGHEDAZONGWULIAOCHANPINYUNSHU,FENMENBIELEITICHUZHIBIAOXIANZHIHEGUANKONGCUOSHI,SHIXIANQUANLIUCHENG、QUANGUOCHENGHUANJINGGUANLI。《YIJIAN》ZHIDINGKEXUEXINGQIANG。YISHICHONGFENTIXIANLEJISHUKEXINGXING,DUICHAODIPAIFANGYAOQIUBINGBUSHI“YIDAOQIE”,DUISHAOJIEJIHEQITAZHUYAOWURANYUANFENBIETICHUBUTONGXIANZHI;ERSHICHONGFENTIXIANLEGUANLIDECHAYIXING,ZAIZHONGWURANTIANQIYINGDUIQIJIAN,DUIWEIWANCHENGCHAODIPAIFANGGAIZAOQIYESHIXINGYANGEGUANLI;SANSHIQIANGDIAOYIFATUIJIN,MINGQUEDABIAOPAIFANGSHIFADINGZEREN,CHAODIPAIFANGSHIGULIDAOXIANG,DUIWANCHENGCHAODIPAIFANGGAIZAOQIYEJIYUXIANGYINGZHENGCEZHICHI;SISHIQIANGDIAOKECAOZUOXING,YAOQIUGANGTIEQIYEZHIDING“YICHANGYICE”ZHILIFANGAN,YANBAGONGCHENGZHILIANG,QUEBAOZHANGQILIANXUWENDINGYUNXING。

《YIJIAN》DESHISHIJIANGWENBUGAIBIANWOGUOGANGTIEXINGYEFAZHANSHUIPINGCANCHABUQIDEXIANZHUANG,JIANGDIGANGTIEXINGYEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGLIANG,XIANZHUGAISHANHUANJINGKONGQIZHILIANG。JUCHUBUCESUAN,DAO2025NIAN,《YIJIAN》RENWUQUANMIANWANCHENGHOU,JIANGDAIDONGGANGTIEXINGYEERYANGHUALIU、DANYANGHUAWU、KELIWUPAIFANGLIANGFENBIEXUEJIAN61%、59%HE81%。

YOUYUGANGTIEXINGYEZAIZHONGDIANQUYUXIANGDUIGENGWEIJIZHONG,CHAODIPAIFANGGAIZAOJIANGZAIZHONGDIANQUYUCHANSHENGGENGDADEHUANJINGXIAOYI。ZHONGDIANQUYUWANCHENGGANGTIEXINGYECHAODIPAIFANGGAIZAORENWUHOU,JINGJINJIJIZHOUBIANDIQUERYANGHUALIU、DANYANGHUAWU、KELIWUPAIFANGZONGLIANGJIANGZAIMUQIANDEJICHUSHANGFENBIEXUEJIAN14%、18%、21%;ZHANGSANJIAODIQUJIANGFENBIEXUEJIAN8%、11%、20%;FENWEIPINGYUANJIANGFENBIEXUEJIAN3%、6%、15%。MOXINGFENXIJIEGUOBIAOMING,SHANGSHUWURANWUXUEJIANJIANGDAIDONGJINGJINJIJIZHOUBIANDIQU、ZHANGSANJIAODIQU、FENWEIPINGYUANPM2.5NONGDUFENBIEXIAJIANG5.6WEIKE/LIFANGMI、3.4WEIKE/LIFANGMI、2.4WEIKE/LIFANGMI,ZHANQUYUPINGJUNPM2.5NONGDUDE9%、8%、4%。GUOQUBEIJING、JINANDENGCHENGSHIKAIZHANLEGANGTIEQIYEYIDIBANQIANGONGZUO,DUICHENGSHIKONGQIZHILIANGGAISHANQIDAOLEJIJIZUOYONG,RUJIGANGBANQIANDUIJINANSHIERYANGHUALIUHEKEXIRUKELIWUNIANPAIFANGLIANGFENBIEXUEJIAN10%HE12%,SHIJINANSHIQUKONGQIZHILIANGZONGHEZHISHUXIAJIANG0.76,ZHEIYECONGLINGYIFANGMIANYINZHENGLEKAIZHANGANGTIEXINGYECHAODIPAIFANGZHILIKEWANGQUDEKEGUANDEHUANJINGXIAOYI。

来源:中国环境报    作者:贺克斌 清华大学环境学院院长、中国工程院院士

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