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烟气脱白技术   众鑫棋牌 > 烟气脱白技术

烟气除尘技术:影响湿法烟气脱硫效率的因素分析

[2019-1-18] 点击:

湿电咨询服务: 陶经理18332815001 张经理18633235200

ZHAIYAO:TONGGUODUISHIFAYANQITUOLIUGONGYIGUOCHENGDEFENXIHEXITONGDIAOSHIJIEGUO,ZONGJIECHUYUANYANQIZHONGYANGLIANG、FENCHEN、WENDUDENGCANSHUDEBIANHUAHEGONGYIGUOCHENGKONGZHI、SHEBEIYUNXINGFANGSHIDEGAIBIANDUIYANQITUOLIUXIAOLVDEYINGXIANGGUILV,DUIYUNXINGSHIJIANYOUYIDINGDEZHIDAOYIYI。

GUANJIANCI:YANQITUOLIU;ERYANGHUALIU;TUOLIULV;YINGXIANGYINSU

1 前言

湿式石灰石-石膏烟气脱硫(以下简称FGD)是目前世界上技术最成熟、实用业绩最多、运行状况最稳定的脱硫工艺,脱硫效率在90%以上,副产品石膏可回收利用。杭州半山发电有限公司采用德国斯泰米勒公司石灰石-石膏湿法工艺,处理4、5号炉2×125 MW机组的全部燃煤烟气,最大处理烟气量1.0×106 m3/h(湿),脱硫率在95%以上,FGD出口SO2排放浓度<180 mg/m3,作为烟气脱硫的副产品石膏,其纯度>90%,含水率<10%。

SHIFAYANQITUOLIUGONGYISHEJIDAOYIXILIEDEHUAXUEHEWULIGUOCHENG,TUOLIUXIAOLVQUJUEYUDUOZHONGYINSU。ZAIYUANLIAOFANGMIAN,GONGYISHUIPINZHI、SHIHUISHIFENDECHUNDUHEKELIXIDUDENGZHIJIEYINGXIANGTUOLIUHUAXUEFANYINGHUOXING;ZAIGONGYIKONGZHIFANGMIAN,SHIHUISHIFENDEZHIJIANGNONGDU、SHIGAOXUANLIUZHANPAICHUDEFEISHUILIULIANGSHEDINGDENGDOUYUTUOLIULVYOUGUAN,ERFGDGUANJIANSHEBEIDEYUNXINGHEKONGZHIFANGSHIJIANGJUEDINGTUOLIUXIAOGUOHEZHONGCHANWUSHIGAODEPINZHI;JIZUYUANYANQICANSHURUWENDU、SO2NONGDU、YANGLIANG、FENCHENNONGDUDENGYEBUTONGCHENGDUDIYINGXIANGTUOLIUFANYINGJINCHENG。BENWENZHIZAITANTAOYUANYANQIYUTUOLIUJIDEJIECHUFANYINGSHIJIAN、YUANYANQICANSHUDEBIANDONG、XISHOUTAJIANGYEpHZHI、SHIGAOJIANGYEMIDUDENGYINSUDUIYANQITUOLIUXIAOLVDEYINGXIANGGUILV,WEIYOUHUAXITONGYUNXING、TIGAOTUOLIUXIAOLVTIGONGCANKAO。

杭州半山发电有限公司

2 湿法脱硫工艺过程分析

FGD包括增压风机、气-气加热器、吸收塔、石灰石制浆系统、石膏脱水系统和废水处理等部分,其中吸收塔是烟气脱硫反应的关键部分,见图1所示。湿法烟气脱硫工艺的主要原理是以石灰石浆液作为脱硫剂,在吸收塔(洗涤塔)内对含有SO2的烟气进行喷淋洗涤,使SO2与浆液中的碱性物质发生化学反应生成CaSO3和CaSO4而将SO2去除,其化学反应如下:

气相部分:SO2+H2O+1/2O2→H2SO4

液相部分:H2SO4+CaCO3+H2O→CaSO4•2H2O +CO2

XISHOUTAYOULIANGCENGJIAOBANQI(SHANG、XIAGE3TAI)、JIANGYEPENLINPAN(4CENG,JIAOCUOPAILIE)、LIANGJICHUWUQIZUCHENG,ZAITIANJIAXINXIANSHIHUISHIJIANGYEDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHIHUISHI、SHIGAOHESHUIDEHUNHEWUTONGGUO4TAIXUNHUANBENGZHIPENLINPAN,JIANGYEJINGPENZUIWUHUACHENGWUDI,CONGSHANGBUXIANGXIAPENSA。YANQIFENBIE

4、5HAOLUYANDAOYINCHU,JINGZENGYAFENGJIZHIQI-QIJIAREQI,YANWENCONG135℃JIANGZHI100℃ZUOYOU,RANHOUJINRUXISHOUTAXIABU,ZAITANEISHANGSHENGGUOCHENGZHONGYUWUDICHONGFENJIECHU,DABUFENSO2、SO3、HClDENGCONGYANQIZHONGQUCHU,FANYINGHOUDEJINGYANQITONGGUOCHUWUQI,YICHUQUJIADAIDEYEDI,RANHOUJINRUQI-QIJIAREQIBEIJIAREHOUPAIZHIYANCONG。

ZAIXISHOUTANEI,TONGGUOYANGHUAFENGJIJIANGKONGQIYINRUDAOJIANGYEZHONG,ZAIJINGJIAOBANQIJIAOBANSHIYANGCHONGFENZHURUJIANGYE,ZHEIYANGJIBAOZHENGLEBEIXISHOUDESO2YUJIANGYEFANYINGHOUSHENGCHENGDEHSO3-WANQUANYANGHUACHENGSO42-,YOUJIANSHAOLEJIANGYEFASHENGJIEGOUDEKENENGXING,SHISHIGAOCaSO4•2H2OJIEJINGXICHU,ZAIXISHOUTANEITINGLIUYIDINGSHIJIANHOU,TONGGUOSHIGAOWAIPAIBENGSONGZHISHIGAOXUANLIUZHAN。JINGXUANLIUQIFENLIDEGAONONGDUSHIGAOJIANGYEJINRUZHENKONGPIDAIJITUOSHUIXINGCHENGSHUIFENSHAOYU10%DESHIGAO,DINONGDUDEXUANLIUYILIUYEZEFANHUIZHIXISHOUTAJIXUFANYINGHUOJINRUFEISHUICHULIXITONG。

CONGSHIFAYANQITUOLIUGONGYIGUOCHENGHEHUAXUEFANYINGLICHENGBUNANFAXIAN,TIGAOYANQIYUHUNHEJIANGYEDEJIECHUFANYINGSHIJIAN、ZENGJIAJIANGYEXUNHUANLIANG、ZENGJIAYANGLIANG、KONGZHIXISHOUTAJIANGYEHELIDEpHZHIDENGCUOSHIDOUJIANGYOULIYUSO2DEXISHOU、TUOLIULVDETIGAOHESHIGAODEXINGCHENG。

3 影响脱硫率的因素分析

SHIFAYANQITUOLIUXIAOLVYUYUANYANQICANSHUHESHEBEIYUNXINGFANGSHIDENGYOUZHIJIEGUANXI,ERQIEXUDUOYINSUSHIGONGTONGZUOYONGDE。BANSHANFADIANCHANG4、5HAOJIZURANMEIPINGJUNHANLIULVWEI0.8%,JINRUXISHOUTADEYANQIZHONGSO2NONGDUZAI1500 mg/m3(GAN)ZUOYOU,YOUYUMEIZHONGDEBIANHUAN,SHIJIYUNXINGZHONGSO2JINKOUNONGDUZAI900 mg/m3~3500 mg/m3ZHIJIANBODONG,TUOLIULVYEBUSHIFENWENDING,DANGYUANYANQIZHONGSO2TURANSHENGGAOSHI,TUOLIULVHUIYOUSUOXIAJIANG,DANRUONENGYOUXIAODIKONGZHISHEBEIYUNXINGFANGSHI,JIUNENGBAOZHENGFGDYOUJIAOGAOERWENDINGDETUOLIULV。BIAO1SHOUJILEZAIFGDZHENGTAOQIDONGDIAOSHIHESHIYUNXINGQIJIAN,BIJIAODIANXINGDEGEZHONGGONGKUANGXIADEYUNXINGCANSHU,CONGZHONGKEYIFAXIANXISHOUTAJIANGYEpHBIANHUA、XUNHUANBENGYUNXINGFANGSHI、YANGHUAFENGJITOUYUNTAISHUDENGDUITUOLIULVDEYINGXIANGGUILV。

3.1烟气与脱硫剂接触时间

YANQIZIQI-QIJIAREQIJINRUXISHOUTAHOU,ZIXIAERSHANGLIUDONG,YUPENLINERXIADESHIHUISHIJIANGYEWUDIJIECHUFANYING,JIECHUSHIJIANYUEZHANG,FANYINGJINXINGDEYUEWANQUAN。MEICENGPENLINPANDUIYINGYITAIXUNHUANBENG,PAILIESHUNXUWEI1、2、3、4HAOZIXIAERSHANG(JIANTU1),4HAOXUNHUANBENGDUIYINGDEPENLINPANWEIZHIZUIGAO,YUYANQIJIECHUXIDIDESHIJIANZUIZHANG,YINCITOUYUN4HAOXUNHUANBENGYOULIYUYANQIHETUOLIUJICHONGFENFANYING,XIANGYINGDETUOLIULVYEGAO。CONGBIAO1SHIJIYUNXINGDEQINGKUANGKEYIFAXIAN,ZAICHULI1TAIJIZUYANQISHI,BULUNYUNXINGNA3TAIXUNHUANBENGDOUNENGBAOCHIHENGAODETUOLIULV,ERYUNXING2TAIXUNHUANBENGSHIRUGUOKAIQI4HAOXUNHUANBENG,ZETUOLIULVKEBIYUNXINGQITAXUNHUANBENGSHIDETUOLIULVGAOCHU1~2%,XIAOGUOXIANZHU;CHULI2TAIJIZUYANQISHI,2、3、4XUNHUANBENGLIANHEYUNXINGSHIDETUOLIULVYAOBI1、2、3HAOBENGLIANHEYUNXINGSHIGAOCHU3%YISHANG,KEJIAN,4HAOXUNHUANBENGDETOUYUNDUITIGAOTUOLIULVXIAOGUOXIANZHU,3HAOXUNHUANBENGDEYINGXIANGCIZHI,2HAO、1HAOYICIJIANRUO,YEJIUSHISHUO,YANQIYUTUOLIUJIDEJIECHUSHIJIANYUEZHANG,TUOLIULVYUEGAO。LINGWAI,XINXIANDESHIHUISHIJIANGYESHITONGGUO3HAOHUO4HAOXUNHUANGUANZHURUDE,SUOYI3、4HAOXUNHUANBENGDETOUYUNYUFOUJIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGTUOLIULV。

3.2 浆液循环量

新鲜的石灰石浆液喷淋下来后与烟气接触后,SO2等气体与石灰石的反应并不完全,需要不断地循环反应,从表1可以发现,运行3台循环泵的脱硫率明显高于只运行2台的工况。原因是增加了浆液的循环量,也就加大了CaCO3与SO2的接触反应机会,从而提高了SO2的去除率。此外,增加浆液的循环量,将促进混合浆液中的HSO3-氧化成SO42-,有利于石膏的形成。

3.3 吸收塔浆液pH值

YANQIZHONGSO2YUXISHOUTAJIANGYEJIECHUHOUFASHENGRUXIAYIXIEHUAXUEFANYING:

SO2+H2O=HSO3+H

CaCO3+H=HCO3+Ca2+

HSO3-+1/2O2=SO4 2-+H

SO42-+Ca2++2H2O=CaSO4•2H2O

从以上反应历程不难发现,高pH的浆液环境有利于SO2的吸收,而低pH则有助于Ca2+的析出,二者互相对立,因此选择一合适的pH值对烟气脱硫反应至关重要。为此我们做了一次试验,在连续一段时间(10 h)内,人为调整石灰石浆液进吸收塔的流量,使浆液的pH值先从小到大,然后又逐渐减少,图2反映了pH变化时,脱硫率及浆液中CaCO3、CaSO4•2H2O含量的变化曲线。

通过试验发现,在一定范围内随着吸收塔浆液pH的升高,脱硫率一般也呈上升趋势,因为高pH意味着浆液中有较多的CaCO3存在,对脱硫当然有益,但pH>5.8后脱硫率不会继续升高,反而降低,原因是随着H+浓度的降低,Ca2+的析出越来越困难,当pH=5.9时,浆液中CaCO3的含量达到2.98%,而CaSO4•2H2O含量也低于90%,显然此时SO2与脱硫剂的反应不彻底,既浪费了石灰石,又降低了石膏的品质,pH再下降时,CaSO4•2H2O含量又回升,CaCO3则降低。因此,浆液pH值既不能太高又不能太低,一般情况下控制吸收塔浆液的pH在5.4~5.5之间,能使脱硫反应的Ca/S保持在设计值(1.02左右)内,获得较为理想的脱硫率,同时又使浆液中CaCO3的含量低于1%。

3.4氧量

O2CANYUYANQITUOLIUDEHUAXUEGUOCHENG,SHI4HSO3-YANGHUAWEISO42-,TU3XIANSHILEJIESHOUERTAIJIZUYANQISHI,ZAIYANQILIANG、SO2NONGDU、YANWENDENGCANSHUJIBENHENGDINGDEQINGKUANGXIAYANGLIANGDUITUOLIULVDEYINGXIANGQUXIAN,SUIZHEYANQIZHONGO2HANLIANGDEZENGJIA,CaSO4•2H2ODEXINGCHENGJIAKUAI,TUOLIULVYECHENGSHANGSHENGQUSHI。DANGYUANYANQIZHONGYANGLIANGYIDINGSHI,KERUWEIWANGXISHOUTAJIANGYEZHONGZENGJIAYANGQI,SUOYIDUOTOUYUNYANGHUAFENGJIKETIGAOTUOLIULV。DANGYANQIZHONGO2HANLIANGWEI6.0%SHI,YUNXING2TAIYANGHUAFENGJIBIYUNXING1TAIYANGHUAFENGJIDETUOLIULVGAOCHU2%ZUOYOU。

3.5 石膏浆液密度

SUIZHEYANQIYUTUOLIUJIFANYINGDEJINXING,XISHOUTADEJIANGYEMIDUBUDUANSHENGGAO,TONGGUOXISHOUTAJIANGYEHUAXUECHENGFENDEQUYANGFENXIJIEGUO,DANGMIDU>1085 kg/m3SHI,HUNHEJIANGYEZHONGCa-CO3HECaSO4•2H2ODENONGDUYIQUYUBAOHE,CaSO4•2H2ODUISO2DEXISHOUYOUYIZHIZUOYONG,TUOLIULVHUIYOUSUOXIAJIANG;ERSHIGAOJIANGYEMIDUGUODI(<1075 kg/m3=SHI,SHUOMINGJIANGYEZHONGCaSO4•2H2ODEHANLIANGJIAODI,CaCO3DEXIANGDUIHANLIANGSHENGGAO,CISHIRUGUOPAICHUXISHOUTA,JIANGDAOZHISHIGAOZHONGCa-CO3HANLIANGZENGGAO,PINZHIJIANGDI,ERQIELANGFEILETUOLIUJISHIHUISHI。YINCIYUNXINGZHONGKONGZHISHIGAOJIANGYEMIDUZAIYIHESHIDEFANWEINEI(1075~1085 kg/m3),JIANGYOULIYUFGDDEYOUXIAO、JINGJIYUNXING。

3.6 烟尘

YUANYANQIZHONGDEFEIHUIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZUAILESO2YUTUOLIUJIDEJIECHU,JIANGDILESHIHUISHIZHONGCa2+DERONGJIESULV,TONGSHIFEIHUIZHONGBUDUANRONGCHUDEYIXIEZHONGJINSHURUHg、Mg、Cd、ZnDENGLIZIHUIYIZHICa2+YUHSO3-DEFANYING。SHIYANZHENGMING,RUGUOYANQIZHONGFENCHENHANLIANGCHIXUCHAOGUO400 mg/m3(GAN),ZEJIANGSHITUOLIULVXIAJIANG1%~2%,BINGQIESHIGAOZHONGCaSO4•2H2ODEHANLIANGJIANGDI,BAIDUJIANSHAO,YINGXIANGLEPINZHI。

3.7 烟气温度

SHIJIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,JIZUFUHEBIANHUAJIAOPINFAN,FGDJINKOUYANWENYEHUISUIZHIBODONG,DUITUOLIULVYOUYIDINGDEYINGXIANG。LILUNSHANGJINRUXISHOUTADEYANQIWENDUYUEDI,YUELIYUSO2QITIRONGYUJIANGYE,XINGCHENGHSO3-,SUOYIGAOWENDEYUANYANQIXIANJINGGUOQI-QIJIAREQIJIANGWENHOUZAIJINRUXISHOUTAYUTUOLIUJIJIECHUYOULIYUSO2DEXISHOU。SHIJIYUNXINGJIEGUOYEZHENGSHILEZHEIYIDIAN,ZAICHULIERTAIJIZUYANQI、YUNXING2、4HAOXUNHUANBENG、JINKOUYANQISO2NONGDUHEYANGLIANGJIBENBUBIANDEGONGKUANGXIA,DANGJINRUXISHOUTADEYANWENWEI96℃SHI,TUOLIULVWEI92.1%;DANGYANWENSHENGDAO103℃SHI,TUOLIULVYIXIAJIANGZHI84.8%,ERJIESHOUYITAIJIZUYANQISHIYANWENDUITUOLIULVDEYINGXIANGJIUGENGMINGXIANLE。

4 结论

(1)SHIFAYANQITUOLIUGUOCHENGZHONG,YANQIYUTUOLIUJIDEJIECHUFANYINGSHIJIANYUEZHANG、XISHOUTAJIANGYEXUNHUANLIANGYUEDUOYUEYOULIYUTUOLIULVDETIGAO。

(2)JINRUXISHOUTADEYUANYANQIZHONGO2HANLIANGGAO、FENCHENNONGDUDI、YANWENDIDENGDOUDUITUOLIUFANYINGYOULI,DANGYANGLIANGYIDINGSHI,ZENGKAIYITAIYANGHUAFENGJINENGTIGAOTUOLIUXIAOLV。

(3)BAOCHIXISHOUTAJIANGYEpHZAI5.4~5.5ZHIJIAN,KESHIFGDBAOCHIJIAOHAODETUOLIUXIAOGUOHESHIGAOPINZHI,pHTAIGAOBULIYUCa2+DEXICHUHESHIHUISHIDECHONGFENLIYONG,pHGUODIZEYINGXIANGSO2DEXISHOU。

(4)吸收塔浆液密度过高会降低脱硫率,过低时脱硫剂的利用不彻底,保持浆液密度在1075~1085 kg/m3之间,可获得较好的脱硫效果

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