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烟气脱白技术   众鑫棋牌 > 烟气脱白技术

威美环保转载烟气治理技术发展应用及减排效果

[2018-8-23] 点击:

湿电咨询服务: 陶经理18332815001 张经理18633235200

SUIZHEZHONGGUODAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUNDEBUDUANQUYAN,YIJICHAODIPAIFANGGUOJIAZHUANXIANGXINGDONGDESHISHI,ZHONGGUOHUODIANCHANGDAQIWURANFANGZHIJISHUFAZHANXUNSU,MUQIANYICHUYUGUOJILINGXIANSHUIPING。WEILEJIAQIANGHEGUIFANHUODIANCHANGWURANFANGZHI,TUIDONGHUODIANXINGYEWURANFANGZHICUOSHISHENGJIGAIZAOYUJISHUJINBU,HUANBAOBUKEJIBIAOZHUNSIZUZHIBIANZHILE《HUODIANCHANGWURANFANGZHIKEXINGJISHUZHINAN》(HJ2301—2017),YU2017NIAN5YUEZHENGSHIYIBIAOZHUNXINGSHIFABU。

1  除尘技术发展与应用

自GB 13223—1996标准颁布实施后,电力工业原先普遍应用的旋风除尘器、文丘里水膜除尘器、斜棒栅除尘器等,因其除尘效率低,无法达到排放标准而遭到淘汰,取而代之的是高效电除尘器,从此电除尘技术得到普及。“十一五”至“十二五”期间,中国燃煤电厂烟尘排放限值经历了从50mg/m3到30mg/m3再到10mg/m3的三级跳,电除尘技术方面高频电源、脉冲电源、旋转电极、低低温电除尘、湿式电除尘等新技术应运而生并得到大规模应用,同时电袋复合除尘和袋式除尘技术不断取得突破,相应装机容量份额逐渐提高,另外湿法脱硫协同除尘技术和效果也逐步提高。可见,随着火力行业大气污染物排放标准的日益严格,能够长期保证低浓度排放的先进除尘技术进入了快速规模化应用时期,而国外除尘新技术研究与应用处于相对停滞状态。随着我国火电厂烟尘排放标准日益趋严,中国火电行业除尘技术发展情况见图1。

MUQIAN,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYECHUCHENJISHUYIXINGCHENGLEYIGAOXIAODIANCHUCHENQI、DIANDAIFUHECHUCHENQIHEDAISHICHUCHENQIWEIZHUDEGEJU,ANZHUANGDAISHIHUODIANDAIFUHECHUCHENQIDEJIZUBIZHONGYOUSUOTIGAO。2016NIANHUODIANCHANGANZHUANGDIANCHUCHENQI、DAISHICHUCHENQI、DIANDAIFUHECHUCHENQIDEJIZURONGLIANGFENBIEZHANQUANGUOMEIDIANJIZURONGLIANGDE68.3%、8.4%(0.78YIkW)、23.3%(2.19YIkW)。

图1 火电行业烟尘控制技术发展与现状

TU1 HUODIANXINGYEYANCHENKONGZHIJISHUFAZHANYUXIANZHUANG

2 脱硫技术发展与应用

SUIZHEGB 13223—2003BIAOZHUNDEXIUDINGCHUTAI,GESHIDUANJIANSHEDERANMEIJIZUQUANMIANNARUSO2NONGDUXIANZHIKONGZHI,CONGCI,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYEYANQITUOLIUJINRULEKUAISUFAZHANJIEDUAN,SHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHUKUAISUFAZHANBINGDEDAOPUJI。2011NIANGB 13223—2011BIAOZHUNXIUDINGBANBU,ZHONGGUOSO2PAIFANGXIANZHIJINYIBUQUYAN,YANYUMEI、RIDENGFADAGUOJIAHEDIQU,CHENGWEISHIJIEZUIYANDEBIAOZHUN,GAIJIEDUANHUODIANXINGYETONGGUOJINYIBUTIGAOTUOLIUJISHUSHUIPINGHEYUNXINGGUANLISHUIPING,CONGERTIGAOZONGHETUOLIUXIAOLV。

SUIZHEFAGAINENGYUAN[2014]2093HAOWENJIGEDIFANGCHAODIPAIFANGYAOQIUDEXIANGJICHUTAI,TUOLIUJISHUDEFAZHANBURULECHAODIPAIFANGJIEDUAN,GUONEIZAIYINJINXIAOHUAXISHOUJIZIZHUCHUANGXINDEJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGLEDUOZHONGXINXINGGAOXIAOTUOLIUGONGYI,RUSHIHUISHI-SHIGAOFADECHUANTONGKONGTAPENLINTIXIAOJISHU、FUHETAJISHU(BAOKUOXUANHUIOUHE、FEITENGPAOMO、XUANLIUGUPAO、SHUANGTUOPAN、TUANLIUGUANZHADENG)HEpHZHIFENQUJISHU(BAOKUODANTASHUANGpHZHI、SHUANGTASHUANGpHZHI、DANTASHUANGQUDENG)。SUIZHEZHONGGUOHUODIANCHANGSO2PAIFANGBIAOZHUNRIYIQUYAN,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYETUOLIUJISHUFAZHANQINGKUANGJIANTU2。

MUQIAN,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYETUOLIUJISHUYIXINGCHENGLEYISHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUWEIZHU,QITATUOLIUFANGFAWEIFUDEGEJU。JIEZHI2016NIANNIANDI,QUANGUOYITOUYUNHUODIANCHANGYANQITUOLIUJIZURONGLIANGYUE8.8YIkW,ZHANQUANGUOMEIDIANJIZURONGLIANGDE93.0%,RUGUOKAOLVJUYOUTUOLIUZUOYONGDEXUNHUANLIUHUACHUANGGUOLU,QUANGUOTUOLIUJIZUZHANMEIDIANJIZUBILIJIEJIN100%。2015NIANQUANGUOHUODIANXINGYETUOLIUGONGYIYISHIHUISHI-SHIGAOFAWEIZHU,ZHAN92.87%(HANDIANSHIZHAFADENG),HAISHUITUOLIU2.58%、YANQIXUNHUANLIUHUACHUANGTUOLIU1.80%、ANFATUOLIU1.81%,QITAZHAN0.93%。

图2 火电行业SO2控制技术发展与现状

TU2 HUODIANXINGYESO2KONGZHIJISHUFAZHANYUXIANZHUANG

3  低氮燃烧与脱硝技术的发展与应用

SUIZHEGB 13223—2003BIAOZHUNDEXIUDINGCHUTAI,ZHONGGUORANMEIFADIANGUOLUDIDANRANSHAOJISHUDEDAOPUJI,CHENGWEIRANMEIDIANCHANGNOxKONGZHIDESHOUXUANJISHU,JINGGUOJINSHIJINIANDEFAZHAN,XIANXINGDEXIANJINDIDANRANSHAOJISHUNOxJIANPAILVKEDA50%~60%。

随着《火电厂大气污染排放标准》(GB 13223—2011)的颁布,循环流化床锅炉(CFB锅炉)NOx排放浓度限值200mg/m3,原有CFB锅炉通过炉内低氮燃烧已无法满足要求。由于选择性非催化还原法(SNCR)脱硝技术系统设备简单,造价相对低,且CFB锅炉炉膛温度正好处于SNCR最佳反应温度窗,因此SNCR脱硝技术成为CFB锅炉脱硝改造的首选技术,近年来在中国得到迅速发展。煤粉炉机组NOx排放浓度限值要达到100mg/m3,仅依靠低氮燃烧技术已无法满足日益严格的排放要求,自此选择性催化还原法(SCR)烟气脱硝技术在我国燃煤电厂得到普及,催化剂多采用“2+1”配置方式(2层运行,1层预留备用),脱硝效率大多控制在60%~80%。

SUIZHECHAODIPAIFANGDESHISHI,RANMEIJIZUPUBIANCAIYONGZENGJIACUIHUAJICENGSHUDEFANGFASHIXIANNOxCHAODIPAIFANG,TONGSHI,XINXINGCUIHUAJI、QUANFUHETUOXIAODENGJISHUYEYINGYUNERSHENG,BINGDEDAOBUTONGCHENGDUDEJISHUTUPO。SUIZHENOxPAIFANGBIAOZHUNRIYIQUYAN,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYETUOXIAOJISHUFAZHANQINGKUANGJIANTU3。

MUQIAN,ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYETUOXIAOJISHUYIXINGCHENGLEMEIFENLUYIDIDANRANSHAO+SCRYANQITUOXIAOJISHUWEIZHU,XUNHUANLIUHUACHUANGGUOLUYIDIDANRANSHAO+SNCRJISHUWEIZHUDEGEJU。JIEZHI2016NIANNIANDI,QUANGUOYITOUYUNHUODIANCHANGYANQITUOXIAOJIZURONGLIANGYUE9.1YIkW,ZHANQUANGUOMEIDIANJIZURONGLIANGDE96.2%,QIZHONGCAIYONGSCRTUOXIAOJISHUDEJIZUZHANBIYUE95%YISHANG。

图3 火电行业NOX控制技术发展与现状

TU3 HUODIANXINGYENOXKONGZHIJISHUFAZHANYUXIANZHUANG

4  火电行业大气污染物减排效果

4.1  烟尘减排效果

2006NIANZHIQIANSUIZHEHUOLIFADIANLIANGZENGJIA,HUODIANXINGYEYANCHENPAIFANGLIANGCHENGHUANMANZENGZHANGQUSHI,2006NIANDADAOFENGZHIYUE370WANt;SUIZHEGB 13223—2003BIAOZHUNDEBANBUSHISHI,XIANYOURANMEIJIZU2006NIANJIBENWANCHENGDIYICIHUANBAOJISHUGAIZAO(ZHUYAOSHICHUCHENYUSHIFATUOLIU),2007NIANKAISHIHUODIANXINGYEYANCHENPAIFANGLIANGCHUXIANGUAIDIAN,BINGZHUNIANXIAJIANG;SUIZHEGB 13223—2011SHISHANGZUIYANBIAOZHUNHECHAODIPAIFANGXIANZHIDESHISHI,YANCHENPAIFANGLIANGJIXUXIAJIANG,2016NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYEYANCHENPAIFANGLIANGYUE35WANt,BUZU2006NIANFENGZHIDE10%。2000—2016NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYEYANCHENPAIFANGLIANGBIANHUAQUSHIRUTU4SUOSHI。

4.2  SO2减排效果

2006NIANZHIQIANSUIZHEHUOLIFADIANLIANGZENGJIA,HUODIANXINGYEERYANGHUALIUPAIFANGLIANGCHENGZENGZHANGQUSHI,2006NIANDADAOFENGZHI1320WANt。YOUYUZHONGGUOHUODIANCHANGDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUNGB 13223—2003KAISHIDUISO2JINXINGQUANMIANDEKONGZHI,YINCI2006NIANZHIQIANSO2PAIFANGLIANGZENGZHANGSULVHEPAIFANGLIANGMINGXIANDAYUYANCHEN。SUIHOUGB 13223—2003DUIXIANYOUJIZUDESO2KONGZHIZUOYONGZHUJIANXIANXIAN,2007NIANKAISHISO2PAIFANGLIANGKAISHIHUILUO,SUIZHEGB 13223—2011SHISHANGZUIYANBIAOZHUNYIJI2014NIANCHAODIPAIFANGYAOQIUDESHISHI,2015NIANNIANDIXIANYOURANMEIJIZUWANCHENGLETUOLIUSHESHIDESHENGJIGAIZAO,TIGAOLEYUNXINGGUANLISHUIPING,2015NIANSO2PAIFANGLIANGXUNSUYOU2014NIANDE620WANtHUILUOZHI200WANt,XIAJIANGLEYUE68%。2016NIANWOGUOHUODIANXINGYESO2PAIFANGLIANGYUE170WANt,JINZHAN2006NIANFENGZHIDE13%。2000—2016NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYESO2PAIFANGLIANGBIANHUAQUSHIRUTU4SUOSHI。

4.3  NOx 减排效果

2011NIANZHIQIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUNDUINOxKONGZHIYAOQIUXIANGDUIJIAOSONG,NOxPAIFANGLIANGSUIHUOLIFADIANLIANGZENGJIAERMINGXIANZENGJIA,2011NIANDADAOFENGZHI1107WANt。2011NIANKAISHISUIZHEGB 13223—2011SHISHANGZUIYANBIAOZHUNYIJICHAODIPAIFANGYAOQIUDESHISHI,2012NIANKAISHINOxPAIFANGLIANGCHUXIANGUAIDIANKAISHIXUNSUHUILUO,SUIZHEZHONGGUOYANQITUOXIAOJIZURONGLIANGDEZHUNIANSHENGGAO,2015NIANNOxPAIFANGLIANGZAI2014NIANJISHUSHANGXIAJIANGLE71%。2016NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYENOxPAIFANGLIANGYUE155WANt,JINZHAN2011NIANFENGZHIDE14%。2000—2016NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYENOxPAIFANGLIANGBIANHUAQUSHIRUTU4SUOSHI。

图4 火电行业大气污染物排放量变化趋势

TU4 HUODIANXINGYEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGLIANGBIANHUAQUSHI

4.4  污染物排放绩效

ZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYESUIZHEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUNDEBUDUANQUYAN,DANWEIHUODIANFADIANLIANGYANCHEN、SO2、NOxPAIFANGLIANG(PAIFANGJIXIAO)JUNZHUNIANXIAJIANG,2016NIANQUANGUODANWEIHUODIANFADIANLIANGYANCHEN、SO2、NOxPAIFANGLIANGFENBIEWEI0.08、0.39、0.36g/(kWh)。CONG2015NIANKAISHIZHONGGUOHUODIANXINGYEWURANWUPAIFANGJIXIAOSHUIPINGLINGXIANYUMEIGUO。DANZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,2015NIANZHONGGUOHUODIANFADIANLIANGZHONGYUE93%WEIMEIDIAN,ERMEIGUOHUOLIFADIANLIANGZHONGMEIDIANJINZHAN49%,CHONGFENSHUOMINGZHONGGUOMEIDIANYANCHEN、SO2HENOxDEPAIFANGJIXIAOYURANQIDIANCHANGJIBENXIANGDANG。2005—2015NIANZHONGMEIHUODIANDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGJIXIAOBIJIAORUTU5SUOSHI。

图5 中美火电大气污染物排放绩效比较

TU5 ZHONGMEIHUODIANDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGJIXIAOBIJIAO

CONGDANWEIMEIDIANFADIANLIANGPAIFANGJIXIAOLAIBIJIAO,CONG2011NIANKAISHIWOGUODANWEIMEIDIANFADIANLIANGSO2PAIFANGLIANGYIJINGLINGXIANYUMEIGUOMEIDIAN,CONG2015NIANKAISHIWOGUODANWEIMEIDIANFADIANLIANGYANCHEN、NOXPAIFANGLIANGYIJINGLINGXIANYUMEIGUOMEIDIAN。2009NIAN~2015NIANZHONGMEIMEIDIANDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGJIXIAOBIJIAORUTU6SUOSHI。

2009年~2015年中美煤电大气污染物排放绩效比较如图6

2009NIAN~2015NIANZHONGMEIMEIDIANDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGJIXIAOBIJIAO

ZUOZHE | LIJIANGUO ZHUFAHUA SUNXUELI   GUODIANHUANJINGBAOHUYANJIUYUAN   GUOJIAHUANJINGBAOHUDAQIWULIMONIYUWURANKONGZHIZHONGDIANSHIYANSHI

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