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  • 电除雾器配件
  • 湿式静电除尘器生产车间
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石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫技术存在的主要问题分析

作者 | 赵龙彬 大唐华东电力试验研究院

ZHAIYAO:RANMEIDIANCHANGYANQITUOLIUDUOCAIYONGSHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHU。BENWENJIESHAOLESHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHUDELIUCHENGYUSHEJIDAODEHUAXUEFANYING;TONGGUODUISHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHUCUNZAIDETUOLIUXIAOLVDI、SHIGAOTUOSHUIKUNNANYUJIEGOUDENGWENTIDEFENXI,WEITUOLIUXITONGYUNXINGYOUHUA,JIANGDIYUNXINGCHENGBEN,TIGAOTUOLIUXIAOLVTIGONGYIJU。

0 前言

SUIZHEGUOJIAZHENGCEDUIHUANBAOYAOQIURIYIYANGE,TEBIESHI《HUODIANCHANGDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUN》(GB-13223-2011)、“DAQISHITIAO”、“JIENENGJIANPAISHISANWUGUIHUA”DENGYIXILIEZHENGCEXINGCUOSHI,ZAI“SHISANWU”QIJIAN,DAQIWURANDEZHILIJIANGCHENGWEIZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG[1],WOGUOTUOLIUCHANYEDEDAOLELEXUNSUFAZHAN。MUQIAN,GEGUOYANJIUDEYANQITUOLIUFANGFAYICHAOGUOYIBAIZHONG,QIZHONGZHENZHENGNENGYINGYONGYUGONGYESHENGCHANZHONGDEZHIYOUSHIYUZHONG,SHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHUJUYOUKEKAOXINGGAO、TUOLIUXIAOLVGAO、CAOZUOJIANDAN、CHENGBENDIDENGTEDIAN,YINCIDEDAOLEGUONEIWAIRANMEIDIANCHANGDEGUANGFANYINGYONG。BENWENZHUYAOTONGGUODUISHIHUISHI-SHIGAOSHIFATUOLIUJISHUCUNZAIDETUOLIUXIAOLVDI、SHIGAOTUOSHUIXIAOLVDI、JIEGOUWENTIDEJIESHAO,WEITUOLIUXITONGYUNXINGYOUHUA,JIANGDIYUNXINGCHENGBEN,TIGAOTUOLIUXIAOLVTIGONGYIJU。

1 石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫技术工艺流程

石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫工艺采用石灰石作为SO2吸收剂,用球磨机将石灰石磨制成粉与水混合制成石灰石浆液。烟气经除尘器后,从引风机出口排出进入吸收塔,烟气中的SO2被石灰石浆液所吸收,被净化后的烟气经除雾器除雾后离开吸收塔,由烟道进入烟囱排入大气中,同时生成可以利用的副产物石膏。

RANMEIYANQISHIFATUOLIUXITONGBAOKUOXISHOUJIZHIBEIXITONG、YANQIXITONG、XISHOUJIYANGHUAXITONG、FUCHANPINTUOSHUIXITONG、TUOLIUFEISHUICHULIXITONG、GONGYISHUIXITONG、YASUOKONGQIXITONGDENGZIXITONG。

XISHOUTAZHONGSHEJIDAOFUZADEHUAXUEFANYING,JUTIFANYINGFANGCHENGSHIRUXIASUOSHU:

石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫技术反应式

石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫技术总反应式

2  脱硫系统常见问题

2.1 脱硫效率低

TUOLIUXITONGXIAOLVDIXIAZHUYAOYOUSHIHUISHIHUOXINGBUZU,SHIHUISHIZAZHIGUOGAO,XISHOUJIANGYEpHGUODI,Ca/SDI,YOUXIAOYEQIBIDI,SHIHUISHIJIANGYEZAIXISHOUTAZHONGDETINGLIUSHIJIANDUAN,TUOLIUTARUKOUYANQIWENDUGUOGAO,TUOLIUTARUKOUYANQIHANCHENLIANGDADENGYUANYIN[3]。BENWENZHUYAOJIESHAOGEZHONGLIZINONGDUDUITUOLIUXIAOLVDEYINGXIANG。

2.1.1 Cl-的影响

CaCO3DEFENJIESHISHI:CaCO3+H++HSO3-→Ca2++ SO32-+H2O+CO2↑,RUOJIANGYEZHONGHANYOUDALIANGDELVLIZI,HUIXINGCHENGLVHUAGAI,LVHUAGAIHUIDIANLISHENGCHENGCa2+,YOUYUTONGLIZIXIAOYINGDAOZHIYEXIANGDELIZIQIANGDUZENGDA,YIZHIH+DEKUOSAN,HUIZAOCHENGSHANGSHUFANYINGXIANGZUOYIDONG,SHICaCO3FENJIESULVXIAJIANG,JIANGDIXITONGTUOLIUXIAOLV;JIANGYEZHONGHANLVLIZIDELIANGGUOGAO,HUIZENGDASHIGAOTUOSHUIDENANYICHENGDU,GAIBIANSHIGAOJINGXING,SHISHIGAOJINGGEFASHENGJIXINGGAIBIAN;LINGWAI,LVLIZIKEYUDUOZHONGJINSHULIZI,RUFe3+、Al、ZnXINGCHENGLUOHEWU,ZHEIXIELUOHEWUHUIBAOGUOZAICaCO3KELIBIAOMIAN,SHICANYUFANYINGDECaCO3JIANSHAO,JINERYINGXIANGXITONGTUOLIUXIAOLV。

2.1.2 SO32-的影响

YANGHUAKONGQILIANGBUZUHUIDAOZHIJIANGYEZHONGSO32-HANLIANGGUOGAO,DANGQICHAOGUOYIDINGZHISHI,YOUYUTONGLIZIXIAOYINGCaCO3RONGJIEDUJIANGDI,ZAOCHENG“SHIHUISHIPINGBIXIANXIANG”,SHITUOLIUXIAOLVXIAJIANG;LINGWAI,SHIHUISHIJIANGYEXISHOUSO2KEYONGSHUANGMOLILUNJIESHI,DANGYEXIANGZHUTIZHONGSO32-HANLIANGGUOGAO,YEXIANGCHUANZHIZULIHUIHENDA,JIANGDIZONGCHUANZHIXISHU,SHITUOLIUXIAOLVJIANGDI。

2.1.3  F-、Al3+的影响

TUOLIUTARUKOUYANQIHF、LVYANZHONGHANLIANGGUOGAO,HUIDAOZHISHIHUISHIJIANGYEZHONGF-、Al3+HANLIANGGAO。YANQIZHONGDEHFRONGJIEYUJIANGYEHOU,HUIYUJIANGYEZHONGDECa2+SHENGCHENGNANRONGXINGCaF2,CaF2HUIBAOGUOXISHOUJI,ZUZHICaCO3JINYIBURONGJIE,YINGXIANGLEXISHOUJIDELIYONGLV,JIANGDITUOLIUXIAOLV;YANQIZHONGDEAl3+YEHUIYUCaJIEHESHENGCHENGLUOHEWUAlFx,YENENGYINGXIANGCaCO3DELIZIHUA,SHIJIANGYEZHONGDEpHJIANGDI,YINGXIANGSO2DEXISHOU。

2.2 石膏脱水困难

2.2.1 脱硫系统石膏脱水真空皮带机异常

SHEBEIYUNXINGGUZHANGKEDAOZHIZHENKONGDUXIAJIANG,SHIGAOTUOSHUIDONGLIBUZU,JINERDAOZHISHIGAOHANSHUILVSHENGGAO。QIYUANYINYOU:①ZHENKONGBENGGUZHANG;②MOCADAIYOUSUNHUAI;③ZHENKONGXITONGBUYANMI;④PIDAIJIYUNXINGGUIJIBUPING;⑤ZHENKONGXIANGMIFENGSHUISHIKONG;⑤PIDAIYUZHENKONGXIANGZHIJIANYOUKONGXI:⑦LVBUPOSUN。

2.2.2 除尘设备运行效果不好

RUOCHUCHENQIYUNXINGXIAOGUOBUHAO,HUIZAOCHENGDALIANGFEIHUIJINRUTUOLIUXITONGJIANGYEZHONG,ZHEIXIEFEIHUIHUIBAOGUOWEIBEIYANGHUADECaSO3·1/2H2O,SHIQIYANGHUASHOUZU。CaSO3·1/2H2OWEIJIAOTIWUZHI,TOUQIXINGCHA,RUOQIJINRUZHENKONGPIDAIJI,JISHIZENGJIAZHENKONGBENGDECHULIYEWEIBIDADAOHENHAODETUOSHUIXIAOGUO,GENJUSHIJIYUNXINGJINGYANKEZHI,RUOLVBINGHANSHUILVJIAOGAO、ZHANDUJIAODA,KECHUBUPANDINGCaSO3·1/2H2OHANLIANGJIAOGAO,FEIHUIHANLIANGDUITUOLIUXITONGCHANSHENGYANZHONGYINGXIANG。

2.2.3 Cl-含量过高

YOUTU1KEZHI,SHIGAOHANSHUILVSUIZHESHIHUISHIJIANGYEZHONGLVLIZIHANLIANGDESHENGGAOERSHENGGAO,KEYIBIAOMINGSUIZHESHIHUISHIJIANGYEZHONGLVLIZIHANLIANGDESHENGGAO,SHIGAOTUOSHUIXINGNENGYUECHA。YOUYUJIANGYEZHONGCUNZAIDALIANGDELVLIZI,SHIGAOZAIJIEJINGDEGUOCHENGZHONGHUIBAOGUOLVLIZI,BEIBAOGUODELVLIZIHUIYUJIANGYEZHONGDEGAILIZIJIEHE,CONGERSHENGCHENGHANYOU6GEJIEJINGSHUIDEHUAHEWU,SHISHIGAOHANSHUILVZENGJIA,TUOSHUIXIAOGUOBIANCHA;LINGWAI,LVLIZIDEDALIANGCUNZAIHUIYINGXIANGSHIGAOJIEJINGDEGUOCHENG,SHISHIGAOJINGTIFASHENGJINGBIAN,CHANSHENGGENGDUOZHONGLEIDEJINGHE,BULIYUSHIGAOTUOSHUI。

图1

TU1 SHIGAOHANSHUILVSUISHIGAOJIANGYEZHONGLVLIZIBIANHUA

2.3.4 浆液品质恶化

SHIGAOJIANGYEZHONGDEZAZHIZHUYAOLAIZIYUSANGEFANGMIAN:①MEIRANSHAOHOUYANQIZHONGDEHUIFEN;②SHIHUISHIZHONGSUOHANDEZAZHI;③LAIZIQITAXITONGZHONG,ZONGHELIYONGDEBUCHONGSHUIZHONGSUOHANZAZHI。ZHEIXIEZAZHIZAISHIHUISHIJIANGYEZHONGBUCANJIARENHEDEFANYING,YIBANDOUSHITONGGUOFEISHUIXITONGPAICHU,BIAO1WEIMOUDIANCHANGSHIGAO-SHIHUISHISHIFATUOLIUXITONGZHONGSHIGAODECHENGFEN,YOUBIAO1KEZHI:SUIZHESHIGAOZHONGZAZHIHANLIANGYUEGAO,SHIGAOTUOSHUIXINGNENGYUECHA。

BIAO1 BUTONGZAZHIXIASHIGAOHANSHUILV

不同杂质下石膏含水率

2.3  结垢问题

FGDXITONGZHONGCHUXIANYANZHONGDEJIJIANGJIEGOUXIANXIANG,HUIYINQIGUANDAODUSAI、MOSUN、FUSHI,YINQIJUBUHUOZHENGTITANTADENGYIXILIEWENTI,QIZHONGCHUWUQIDEJIJIANGJIEGOUXIANXIANGGENGWEICHANGJIAN。

2.3.1 除雾器结垢原因分析

(1)TUOLIUXITONGZHONGSHUIPINGHENGCHUXIANWENTI  HENDUOSHEBEIDELENGQUESHUI、MIFENGSHUIQUANBUJINRUXITONG,ERZAIDIFUHESHI,YANQILIANGJIAOSHAO,YANQIDUISHUIFENDEXIEDAILIANGJIANSHAO,SHIDEXISHOUTAZHONGJIANGYEYEWEIYIZHIWEICHIZAIJIAOGAODESHUIWEI,ZHISHICHUWUQICHONGXICISHUJIANSHAO, SHENZHIYUNXINGRENYUANZHINENGTINGZHICHUWUQIDECHONGXI,CAINENGFANGZHIXISHOUTAYILIU。ZAIGUOLUDIFUHEYUNXING(60%)SHI,XISHOUTADEYEWEIJIUHENNANWEICHI,GENBENWUFAJINXINGCHUWUQIQINGXI,JIBENSHANGYIZHOUCHONGXIYICI。

(2)CHONGXISHUIYALIBUZU  YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,CHUWUQICHONGXISHUITOUDEYALIYIBANYAOQIUSHI:CHONGXISHIRUKOUMUGUANYALIDAYU0.2MPa,DANYOUYUFAMENANZHUANGBUYANMI、FAMENDINGWEIBUZHUNQUE、NEILOULIANGJIAODA,ZAOCHENGCHONGXIYALIJIANSHAO,CHONGXIYALIDABUDAOSHEJIZHI,CHONGXIXIAOGUODABUDAOBAOZHENG。

(3)JIANGYEMIDUJIAODA  ZAITUOLIUXITONGYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,YUNXINGRENYUANWEIZHUIQIUTUOLIUXIAOLV,SHIXIANDABIAOPAIFANGHUOZHEMANZUCHAODIPAIFANG,XIANGXISHOUTAZHONGJIARUSHIHUISHIJIANGYEYUANCHAOSHEJIZHI,YANQIYUJIANGYEJIECHUHOUXIEDAIGUTIKELILIANGDADAZENGJIA,YUCHUWUQIPENGZHUANGHOUBUFENFUZHEZAICHUWUQIBIAOMIAN,ZHUJIANXINGCHENGGOUWU。

(4)CHUCHENQIYUNXINGXIAOGUOBUHAO  RUOCHUCHENQIDEYUNXINGXIAOGUOBUHAO,DALIANGDEFEIHUIHUIZAICHUWUQIBIAOMIANCHENJI,YOUYUFEIHUIZHONGHANYOUDEJINSHUYANGHUAWUZHANFUXINGHENQIANG,YIDANCHENJIJIEGOU,BUYICHONGXI。

2.3.2 吸收塔内部结垢

XISHOUTAXITONGJIEGOUZHUYAOFASHENGZAIJIANGYEXUNHUANBENGPENZUI、JIANGYEXUNHUANBENGJINKOULVWANG、XISHOUTAJINCHUKOUYANDAO、XISHOUTADIBUJIZHICHENGLIANGCHU。YOUYUJIANGYEZHONGHANYOUCaSO4、CaSO3、CaCO3JIGUI、LVDENGWUZHI,ZHEIXIEWUZHIJUYOUJIAODADEZHANDU,DANGJIANGYEPENGDAOXISHOUTABISHI,JIANGYEZHONGBUFENWUZHIHUIZHANFUZAIXISHOUTABISHANG;TONGSHI,YOUYUYANQIJUYOUJIAOGAODEWENDU,HUIJIAKUAICHENJICENGZHONGSHUIFENDEZHENGFA,SHICHENJICENGJIEGOUGENGJIAZHIMI。

2.4 SHIGAOYUWENTI“SHIGAOYU”ZHONGDEQITAWUZHIZHUYAOYOUYANQIZAIXISHOUTAZHONGWEIBEICHUQUDEWUZHI、JINGYANQIXIEDAIZHEDEJIANGYEHEYANQIYINWENDUJIANGDIERXINGCHENGDELENGNINGSHUIZUCHENG。ZAOCHENG“SHIGAOYU”DEZHUYAOYUANYINYOU:①CHUKOUYANWENDI;②XISHOUTACHUWUQIXINGNENGDIXIA;③YANCONGZHONG“ERCIJIADAI”。

2.4.1 出口烟温低

RUOJINGYANQIYANWENGUODI,BAOHEDESHIYANQIJINGGUOYANCONGPIAOXIANGDAQI,ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGHUILENGNINGCHENGSHUI,XINGCHENGSHIGAOYU。YANQIJINGGUOPENLINXIDIHOU,JINGUANJINGGUOCHUWUQICHUWU,DANSHIJINGYANQIRENGRANSHIBAOHEDESHIYANQI,BAOHESHIYANQIZHONGSHUIZHENGQIHUININGJIECHENGSHUIDI,JIASHEYANQIZAICHUWUQICHUKOUSHIWENDUWEI51℃,ERDAOYANCONGCHUKOUCHUWENDUWEI50℃,YANQIXICHULENGNINGSHUIDELIANGYUEWEI5g/Nm3。WEIJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTI,ZHINENGTIGAOYANCONGCHUKOUYANQIWENDU,YIBANTUOLIUXITONGZHIHOUHUIANZHUANGGGHHUOZHEMGGH。

2.4.2 除雾器性能降低

SHIGAOJIANGYEWUHUAHOU,WUDIDEZHIJINGYIBANZAI920μm,WUDIYUWUDIFASHENGPENGZHUANGHUICHANSHENGSHAOLIANG15μmZUOYOUDEGENGXIAOYEDI,99.99%DE22μmYISHANGDEWUDIYIJI50%DE15-22μmDEWUDINENGGOUBEICHUWUQICHUQU,DANRENGYOUBUFENYEDIHUIJINRUYANCONG。TONGGUOANZHUANGWUJIXINGHEFANGSHUIDIXINGGUANSHICHUWUQIKETIGAOCHUWUQIDELIUTONGMIANJI,TIGAOCHUWUQIDEXIAOLV,KEYISHICHUWUQIHOUDEYANQIZHONGDEWUDIHANLIANGXIAOYU50mg/Nm3,KEYIGAISHAN“SHIGAOYU”ZHONGDEXIANXIANGGAIJINCHUWUQI。

2.4.3 烟囱中“二次夹带”

JINGTUOLIUTAHOUDEJINGYANQICHUYUSHIBAOHEZHUANGTAI,ZAITONGGUOYANCONGSHI,HUIZAIYANCONGNEIBICHANSHENGLENGNINGSHUI,DANLUDANTA600MWJIZULENGNINGSHUIYUEWEI15t/h,DANLUDANTA1000MWJIZULENGNINGSHUIYUEWEI20t/h,YIBUFENHUIZAIYANCONGZHONGLENGNING,ZAIYANCONGZHONGLENGNINGDELENGNINGSHUIBUFENHUISHUNZHEYANCONGNEIBILIUXIALAI,ERLINGYIBUFENHUIYOUYUYANDAONEIBIDEBUGUANGHUAXINGJIYANQILIUSUJIAOGAODENGYUANYIN,SHIYANCONGZHONGBUFENDELENGNINGSHUIZAICIJINRUYANQIZHONG,ZHONGXINBEIDAICHUDEYEDIZHIJINGTONGCHANGWEI100-500μm,YANQIJINRUDAQIYIXINGCHENG“SHIGAOYU”。

结束语

YOUYUWOGUOTUOLIUSHESHITOUYUNSHIJIANBUZHANG,TEBIESHIDUICHAODIGAIZAOHOUDUITUOLIUXITONGYUNXINGJINGYANBUZU,SHIDEZAITUOLIUXITONGYUNXINGZHONGHUICHUXIANHENDUOWENTI,LIRUFUSHIYUMOSUNWENTI、DUSAIWENTI、TANEILIUCHANGJUNYUNXINGDENGWENTI,ZHEIXIEWENTIDOUZHIYUEZHETUOLIUZHUANGZHIDETOURUYULIANGHAODEYUNXING。CIWAI,YOUYUMEITANSHICHANGYUANYIN,SHIJIMEIZHIYUSHEJIMEIZHONGXIANGBI,HANLIULIANGTAIDI,TUOLIUXITONGCHULIBUZU,HUIZAOCHENGSHIHUISHIJIANGYEZHONGLVLIZIDEJILEIDENGWENTI,DOUYINGZHIDEWOMENDEGUANZHU。